Novosibirsk Region belongs to the West Siberian economic region and the Siberian Federal District. The region consists of five urban districts, 30 municipalities and 455 municipal settlements. The Novosibirsk region was established on September 28, 1937.
Novosibirsk Region is located in the southeastern Western Siberian plain, at the foothills of low Salair ridge, between the Ob and Irtysh Rivers. The region borders Omsk Region in the west, Tomsk Region in the north, Kemerovo Region in the east, Altai Territory and Kazakhstan (Pavlodar Region) in the south. The territory of the region extends for more than 600 km (373 mi) from west to east, and for over 400 km (249 mi) from north to south. Novosibirsk Region is mainly plain; steppes are mainly at south; at north enormous tracts of woodland with great number of marshes prevail. There are many lakes, the largest ones located at the south.,The Ob Sea extends for 230 km through the region. Lakes occupy more than 5% of the territory; the largest lakes are Chani, Sartlan, Ubinskoye, and some others.Area of the Novosibirsk Region is 177,8 square km. (1,1% the Russia Federation territory).
On 1 January 2016 according to the Federal State Statistics Service, population of the Novosibirsk Region is 2,762,237 people. 2174868 people live in urban area and 647,809 is rural population. The population density is 15.54 people per 1 square km.
Novosibirsk is the third largest city in Russia, the largest municipality in the Russian Federation where the permanent population is about 1 584 138 people (on 1.01.2016), it is more than 50% of the population of Novosibirsk Region.
Novosibirsk Region has a continental climate. Average temperature is -19 °C in January and +19 °C in July. Annual precipitation is 300–500 mm.
On the territory of the Novosibirsk Region are located 523 kinds of deposits, 83 of those are currently exploited. In the Region were explored reserves of minerals such as coal, peat, sapropel, refractory clay. In the north-west of Novosibirsk Region deposits of oil, natural gas, and gold-copper-nickel are discovered. There are large deposits of non-ferrous metals - titanium dioxide (≈ 1,7 million tons) and zirconia (≈ 7,2 million tons). Were explored 4 marble deposits with reserves more than 8,500,000 cube m.
Leading industry of the Novosibirsk Region is the engineering and metalworking (electrical equipment, instrumentation, metallurgical equipment). Steel and nonferrous metallurgy, chemical, light and food industries, building materials industry are developed in the region.
According to the volume of gross agricultural output Novosibirsk region is in the top ten subjects of the Russian Federation. Among the regions of Siberian Federal District, Novosibirsk Region takes the first place on vegetables and egg production and the third place in grain, meat and milk production.
Novosibirsk region takes the first place among the subjects of the Siberian Federal District in the attracting credit resources for agriculture development.
Agriculture is specialized in growing of grain, potatoes, vegetables as well as a dairy and meat, animal husbandry, poultry farming, apiculture. Production of flax plays a significant role.
Foreign economic activity.
International affairs of the Novosibirsk Region are expanded annually in economy, trade, investment, scientific, technical, cultural, educational and other spheres. Foreign trade affairs are carried out with partners from 110 countries near and far abroad. Foreign trade turnover with China, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Germany, Bulgaria, USA is 73,7%.
Rail: length of the West-Siberian railway track is 1530 km.
Air transport: Tolmachevo is one of the most rapidly developing airports of federal significance. Road transport: there are 3 routes of federal significance on the territory of Novosibirsk region. The length of roads is 14,946km.
Science & Education.
Scientific and educational complex of the Novosibirsk Region takes the third place in the Russia Federation and it is an unique combination of scientific organizations and educational institutions. Scientific and Research complex of the Novosibirsk Region is the largest not only in Siberia, but even in Russia. There are the State Scientific Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector ", departments of three Academies: Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, more than 50 Scientific and Research, Technical and Engineering institutes, 46 higher education institutions and branches (including 26 independent higher education institutions, 16 of those are state), 56 secondary specialized educational institutions, 65 primary vocational education, 39 universities and 68 vocational secondary institutions.
Novosibirsk is one of the recognized cultural centers in Russia and the cultural center of Siberia. There are 11 theaters; the most famous of them is Novosibirsk State Academic Opera and Ballet, the historical and architectural symbol of the Siberian Region. Novosibirsk Philharmonic and the State Conservatory of Glinka are internationally recognized. The State Public Scientific Library SB RAS is the largest in Siberia started work in 1966 in Novosibirsk.
One of the city’s attractions is an unique scientific and educational, cultural and recreational institution is a zoological park, which is unique in the Siberian Region. Novosibirsk Zoo is considered as one of the best in Russia. Location of zoo in a pine forest is unique case among all the zoos in the world. It contains 11,000 species of animals 635 kinds, including rare and endangered species listed in the Red Book.